上海11选5开奖结果

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红外光谱仪及常见问题解析
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上海11选5开奖结果TIANJINSHINENGPUKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间: 2017-08-12 浏览量: 4567

红外光谱仪(infrared spectrometer)是利用物质对不同波长的红外辐射的吸收特性,进行分子结构和化学组成分析的仪器。红外光谱仪通常由光源,单色器,探测器和计算机处理信息系统组成。根据分光装置的不同,分为色散型和干涉型。由于色散型很少使用,目前广泛使用的是干涉型的傅里叶变换红外光谱仪,本文以干涉型的介绍为主。

傅里叶变换红外光谱仪



原理及特点


傅立叶变换红外光谱仪上海11选5开奖结果(FTIR)被称为第三代红外光谱仪,利用麦克尔逊干涉仪将两束光程差按一定速度变化的复色红外光相互干涉,形成干涉光,再与样品作用。探测器将得到的干涉信号送入计算机进行傅立叶变换的数学处理,把干涉图还原成光谱图。




这种仪器的优势:


上海11选5开奖结果1、DUOTONGDAOCELIANG,SHIXINZAOBITIGAO。

2、GUANGTONGLIANGGAO,TIGAOLEYIQIDELINGMINDU。

3、BOSHUZHIJINGQUEDUKEDA0.01cm-1。

上海11选5开奖结果4、ZENGJIADONGJINGDEYIDONGJULI,KESHIFENBIANBENLINGTIGAO。

5、GONGZUOBODUANKECONGKEJIANGUANGQUYANSHENDAOHAOMIQU,SHIXIANYUANHONGWAIGUANGPUDECEDING。

上海11选5开奖结果6、SAOMIAOSULVKUAI,FENBIANLVGAO,WENDINGDEKEZHONGFUXING。



材料分析表征中的应用


HONGWAIGUANGPUFENXIKEYONGYUYANJIUFENZIDEJIEGOUHEHUAXUEJIAN,YEKEYIZUOWEIBIAOZHENGHEJIANBIEHUAXUEWUZHONGDEFANGFA。HONGWAIGUANGPUJUYOUGAODUTEZHENGXING,KEYICAIYONGYUBIAOZHUNHUAHEWUDEHONGWAIGUANGPUDUIBIDEFANGFALAIZUOFENXIJIANDING。[ZC4] ZHISUOYINENGCESHIYANGPINDEZHEIXIEXINGNENG,SHIYINWEIHONGWAIGUANGPUFENXIFASHIGENJUBUTONGWUZHIHUIXUANZEXINGXISHOUHONGWAIGUANGQUDEDIANCIFUSHELAIJINXINGJIEGOUFENXI、DUIGEZHONGXISHOUHONGWAIGUANGDEHUAHEWUJINXINGDINGLIANGHEDINGXINGFENXIDEYIZHONGFANGFA。


测试原理的相关公式如下:


1、满足红外吸收的能量关系




λ:HONGWAIGUANGBOZHANG

h:PULANGKECHANGSHU

c:GUANGSU

∆E:FENZIDEZHENDONGNENGJICHA

 

2、振动频率与质量和键能的关系


YISHUANGYUANZIFENZIZUOJIANXIEZHENDONGWEIJIASHEMOXING,DEDAO




ν:BOSHU

c:GUANGSU

k:JIANDELICHANGSHU

μ:ZHEHEZHILIANG(HUOJIAOYUEHUAZHILIANG)

 

应用举例:


1、FENZIDEJIEGOUHEHUAXUEJIAN,RULICHANGSHU(KETUIZHIHUAXUEJIANDEQIANGRUO)DECEDINGHEFENZIDUICHENGXINGDENG,LIYONGHONGWAIGUANGPUFANGFAKECEDINGFENZIDEJIANZHANGHEJIANJIAO,BINGYOUCITUICEFENZIDELITIGOUXING。

 

上海11选5开奖结果2、XUDUOYOUJIGUANNENGTUANLIRUJIAJI、YAJIAJI、TANGJI,QINGJI,QIANGJI,ANJIDENGDENGZAIHONGWAIGUANGPUZHONGDOUYOUTEZHENGXISHOU,TONGGUOHONGWAIGUANGPUCEDING,RENMENJIUKEYIPANDINGWEIZHIYANGPINZHONGCUNZAINAXIEYOUJIGUANNENGTUAN,ZHEIWEIZUIZHONGQUEDINGWEIZHIWUDEHUAXUEJIEGOUDIANDINGLEJICHU。

 

3、FENZIZAIDIBOSHUQUDEXUDUOJIANZHENGZHENDONGWANGWANGSHEJIFENZIZHONGQUANBUYUANZI,BUTONGDEFENZIDEZHENDONGFANGSHIBICIBUTONG,ZHEISHIDEHONGWAIGUANGPUJUYOUXIANGZHIWENYIYANGGAODUDETEZHENGXING,CHENGWEIZHIWENQU。LIYONGZHEIYITEDIAN,RENMENCAIJILECHENGQIANSHANGWANZHONGYIZHIHUAHEWUDEHONGWAIGUANGPU,BINGBATAMENCUNRUJISUANJIZHONG,BIANCHENGHONGWAIGUANGPUBIAOZHUNPUTUKU。RENMENZHIXUBACEDEWEIZHIWUDEHONGWAIGUANGPUYUBIAOZHUNKUZHONGDEGUANGPUJINXINGBIDUI,JIUKEYIXUNSUPANDINGWEIZHIHUAHEWUDECHENGFEN。



HONGWAIXISHOUGUANGPUTU



样品要求


红外光谱测试可以采用气体、液体或固体样品。如果样品的红外活性键少、纯度高,得到的光谱会相当清晰,效果好。而更加复杂的分子结构或外部环境的影响会导致更多的键吸收和谱带的位移,影响图谱的质量。

 

上海11选5开奖结果SUOYIWEILEDEDAOQINGXI、ZHILIANGGAODETUPU,TONGSHIYEWEILEBIANYUFENXI,DUIYUCESHIYANGPINYOUYIXIAJIDIANJIBENYAOQIU。


上海11选5开奖结果1、YANGPINBIXUYUXIANCHUNHUA,YIBAOZHENGYOUZUGOUDECHUNDU;

2、YANGPINXUYUXIANCHUSHUIGANZAO,BIMIANSUNHUAIYIQI,TONGSHIBIMIANSHUIFENGDUIYANGPINPUTUDEGANRAO;

3、YICHAOJIEDEYANGPIN,YINGFANGZHIZAIGANZAOQINEI;

4、DUIYIHUIFA、SHENGHUA、DUIREBUWENDINGDEYANGPIN,QINGYONGDAIMIFENGGAIHUOSAIZIDERONGQISHENGZHUANGBINGGAIJIN,TONGSHIBIXUZHUMING;

5、DUIYUYOUDUXINGHEFUSHIXINGDEYANGPIN,YONGHUBIXUYONGMIFENGRONGQIZHUANGHAO。SONGYANGSHIBIXUFENBIEZAIYANGPINPINGBIAOQIANDEMINGXIANWEIZHISHANGZHUMING。

 

ZHU:BUTONGDEZHIYANGFANGFAHUIDAILAIBUTONGDEYANGPINYAOQIU,YINGJUTIWENTIJUTIFENXI



检测标准


上海11选5开奖结果GB/T21186-2007 FULIYEBIANHUANHONGWAIGUANGPUYI


疑难解答


Q:分子吸收红外辐射需要满足哪些条件?其吸收强度主要由哪些因素决定?


A:FENZIXISHOUHONGWAIFUSHEBIXUMANZULIANGGETIAOJIAN:

1、YIDINGPINLVDEHONGWAIFUSHE,QINENGLIANGGANGHAOMANZUZHENDONGYUEQIANDENENGJICHA;

2、ZHIYOUZAIZHENDONGGUOCHENGZHONGOUJIJUFASHENGBIANHUADENEIXIEZHENDONGFANGSHICAINENGXISHOUHONGWAIFUSHE,ZHEIYANGDEZHENDONGFANGSHICHENGWEIJUYOUHONGWAIHUOXING。HONGWAIXISHOUPUDAIDEQIANGDUJUEDINGYUOUJIJUBIANHUADEDAXIAO。ZHENDONGSHIOUJIJUBIANHUAYUEDA,XISHOUQIANGDUYUEDA。


Q:用红外光谱法研究高分子材料时,影响频率位移和图谱质量的因素有哪些?


A:

1、影响频率位移的因素

①WAIBUYINSU

  • WULIZHUANGTAIDEYINGXIANG:TONGYIGEYANGPINBUTONGXIANGTAI(QI、YE、GU),TAMENDEGUANGPUYOUHENDACHABIE,ZHEIYUFENZIJIANXIANGHUZUOYONGLIYOUGUAN;

  • RONGJIDEYINGXIANG:TONGYIWUZHIZAIBUTONGDERONGJIZHONG,YOUYURONGZHIYURONGJIDEXIANGHUZUOYONGBUTONG,YINCICEDEDEGUANGPUXISHOUDAIPINLVYEBUTONG;

  • 上海11选5开奖结果LIDUDEYINGXIANG:ZHUYAOYOUSANSHEYINQI。LIDUYUEDA,JIXIANSHANGSHENG,FENGKUANERQIANGDUDI,FANZHIYIRAN;

②NEIBUYINSU

  • 上海11选5开奖结果ZHUYAOSHIFENZINEIBUJIEGOUDEYUANYINYINQIDEBIANHUA:RUYOUDAOXIAOYING、GONGEXIAOYING、JIANYINGLIHEKONGJIANXIAOYING、QINGJIANXIAOYING、OUHEXIAOYING、FEIMIGONGZHEN。


2、影响图谱质量的因素

①YIQICANSHUDEYINGXIANG

  • GUANGTONGLIANG、ZENGYI、SAOMIAOCISHUDENGZHIJIEYINGXIANGXINZAOBI,TONGSHIYAOGENJUBUTONGDEFUJIANJICESHIYAOQIUJISHIJINXINGBIYAODEDIAOZHENG,YIDEDAOMANYIDEPUTU。

②HUANJINGDEYINGXIANG

  • GUANGPUZHONGDEXISHOUDAIBINGFEIDOUSHIYOUGUANGPUBENSHENCHANSHENGDE,CHAOSHIDEKONGQI、YANGPINDEWURAN、CANLIURONGJI、YOUMANAOYANBOHUOBOLIQIMINSUODAIRUDEERYANGHUAGUI、XIUHUAJIAYAPIANSHIXIFUDESHUIDENGYUANYINJUNKECHANSHENGFUJIADEXISHOUDAI,GUZAIGUANGPUJIEXISHIYINGTEBIEJIAYIZHUYI。

③YANGPINHOUDUDEYINGXIANG

  • 上海11选5开奖结果YANGPINDEHOUDUHUOHESHIDEYANGPINLIANGSHIHENZHONGYAODE,TONGCHANGYAOQIUHOUDUWEI10~50μm,DUIYUJIXINGWUZHIRUJUZHIYAOQIUHOUDUXIAOYIXIE,DUIFEIJIXINGWUZHIRUJUXITINGYAOQIUHOUYIXIE。YOUSHIWEILEGUANCHARUOXISHOUDAI,RUMOUXIEHANLIANGSHAODEJITUAN、DUANJI、CELIAN,SHAOLIANGGONGJUZUFENDENG,YINGGAIYONGJIAOHOUDEYANGPINCEDINGGUANGPU,RUOYONGKBrYAPIANFAYONGLIANGYEYINGZUOXIANGYINGDEDIAOZHENG。


Q:对聚合物红外光谱的解释需要注意哪些要素?


上海11选5开奖结果A:XUYAOZHUYISANYAOSU。DIYI,PUDAIDEWEIZHI。TADAIBIAOMOUYIJITUANDEZHENDONGPINLV,YESHISHUOMINGSHIFOUHANYOUMOUZHONGJITUANDEBIAOZHI;DIER,PUDAIDEXINGZHUANG。LIRUQINGJIANHELIZIDEGUANNENGTUANHUICHANSHENGHENKUANDEHONGWAIPUDAI,ZHEIDUIYUJIANDINGTESHUJITUANDECUNZAISHIFENZHONGYAO;DISAN、PUDAIDEXIANGDUIQIANGDU。PUDAIDEQIANGRUODUIBIBUDANSHIYIZHONGJITUANHANLIANGDEDINGLIANGFENXIJICHU,ERQIEKEYIANSHIMOUYITESHUJITUANHUOYUANSUDECUNZAI。FENZIZHONGYOUJIXINGJIAOQIANGDEJITUANJIANGCHANSHENGQIANGDEXISHOU,RUTANGJI、MIJIDENGPUDAIDEXISHOUDOUHENQIANG。


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